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Bibliography / Bibliografía

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A. General References /Referencias Generales

Friedenberg, Edgar Z. R.D. Laing. New York: Viking, 1974.

Karlberg, Michael: “Beyond the Culture of Contest – From Adversarialism to Mutualism in an Age of Interdependence”. Oxford: George Ronald Publisher, 2004.

Reismann, David, Reuel Denny and Nathan Glazer: The Lonely Crowd. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1951.


B. Adversarial Theory / Teorías Agónicas

Benthall, J. (ed.). The Limits of Human Nature. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1974.

Eisenberg, Leon: “The Human Nature of Human Nature”. Science, April 14, 1972, pp. 123-28.

Fromm, Erich. Marx's Concept of Man. New York; Frederick Ungar Publishing, 28th edition, 1980.

Korotayev, Andrey V. et al. "Secular Cycles and Millennial Trends" (October 9, 2006). In "Social Dynamics and Complexity", Working Papers Series: Paper wp6. URL:

Lorenz, Konrad. “On Aggression”. New York: Bantam Book, 15th impression, 1977.

Ong, Walter J. “Fighting for Life – Contest, Sexuality and Consciousness”. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981.

Ryan, A. ‘The Nature of Human Nature in Hobbes and Rousseau’, in Benthall [1974:647-99].

Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre. “The Future of Man”. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1964.

Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre. “The Phenomenon of Man”. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 2008.

Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre. “The Vision of the Past”. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1966.

1. Scientific and Social Revolutions / Revoluciones Científicas y Sociales

Barker, Joel: “Paradigmas - El Negocio de Descubrir el Futuro”. Bogotá: McGraw Hill, 1995.

Descartes, René, “Discurso del método para dirigir bien la razón y hallar la verdad en las ciencias”, 1637.

Descartes, René, “Meditaciones Metafísicas, en las que la existencia de Dios y la distinción real entre la mente y el cuerpo son demostradas”, 1641.

Hatcher, William: “Minimalism”. Hong Kong: Juxta Publishing Ltd., 2004.

Kuhn, Thomas S.: “La Estructura de las Revoluciones Científicas”. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1975.

McGregor, Douglas, 1966. “The Human Side of Enterprise”, in “Leadership and Motivation, Essays of Douglas McGregor”. Edited by: W. G. Bennis and E. H. Schein. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1966, pp. 3–20.

McGregor, Douglas, quoted by Luthans, Fred: “Organizational Behavior”. New York: McGraw Hill, 1977, p. 20.

2. The Influence of Physics /Influencia de la Física

Araujo, María Caridad: “Entropía y procesos productivos: una aplicación a la economía ecuatoriana”. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1998.

Ball, Philip: “Critical Mass - How one thing leads to another”. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2004.

Bertalanffy, Ludwig von. General Systems Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications. New York: Braziller, 1998.

Capra, Fritjof. “El Tao de la Física”. Buenos Aires: Ed. Sirio Argentina, 8ª ed., 2006.

Capra, Fritjof. “The Turning Point - Science, Society and the Rising Culture”. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1982.

Capra, Fritjof. “The Web of Life - A New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems”. New York: Anchor Books, 1996. (Español: “La Trama de la Vida”)

Englehart, Kurt. Application of Systems Theory to General Social Theory. Rohnert Park, CA: Engelhart, 1995.

Heisenberg, Werner. “Physics and Philosophy – The Revolution in Modern Science”. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1958.

Laszlo, Ervin, “Quantum Shift in the Global Brain – How the New Scientific Reality can Change us and our World”. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions, 2008.

Laszlo, Ervin, “The Systems View of the World - A Holistic Vision for our Time”. New Jersey: Hampton Press, Inc., 4th printing 2002.

Skyttner, Lars. General Systems Theory: An Introduction. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996.

Storer, John H. “Man in the Web of Life”. New York: Signet, 1968

3. Biological & Genetic Theory /Teorías Biológicas y Genéticicas

Aronson, Elliot. "The Social Animal". 2nd ed. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman, 1976, quoted in Kohn [1992].

Becker, Gary: “A Genetic Defense of the Free Market”, Business Week, April 10, 1978.

Corning, Peter A. “Nature’s Magic: Synergy in Evolution and the Fate of Humankind". Institute for the Study of Complex Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Darwin, Charles. “The Voyage of the Beagle into the natural history and geology of the countries visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the world, under the Command of Capt. Fitz Roy, R.N. London: John Murray, 2nd edition, 1845.

Darwin, C.R. “On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life”. London: John Murray, 1859.

Darwin, Charles. “The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex”. London: John Murray, 1st edition, 1871.

Dawkins, Richard, The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976. The second edition (1990) has two chapters on the evolution of cooperation.

Ehrlich, Paul. “Human Natures – Genes, Cultures and the Human Prospect”. New York: Penguin Books, 2000.

Ghiselin, Michael T., The Economy of Nature and the Evolution of Sex, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

Gorney, Roderic. The Human Agenda. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972.

Hamilton, W.D. "The Genetical Theory of Social Behaviour,” Journal of Theoretical Biology 7 (1964).

Hofstadter, Richard. Social Darwinism in American Thought. Revised Edition. Boston: Beacon, 1955.

Kropotkin, Peter. “Mutual Aid: a Factor of Evolution”, 1902. Reprinted in Boston by Extending Horizons Books, 1955.

Lewontin, R.C., et al.: “Not in our genes - Biology, Ideology and Human Nature”. New York: Pantheon, 1984.

Lewontin, R.C: “Biology as Ideology - The Doctrine of DNA”. New York: Harper-Collins Publishers, Inc., 1991.

Margulis, Lynn. Symbiosis as a Source of Evolutionary Innovation. Cammbridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991.

Margulis, Lynn. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution. New York: Basic Books, 1998.

Mark, Vernon and Frank Ervin. Violence and the Brain. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1970.

Montagu, Ashley, ed. Man and Aggression. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968, 2nd ed. 1973.

Montagu, Ashley. Darwin, Competition and Cooperation. 1952. Reprinted in Westport, Conn.: Greanwood Press, 1973.

Pastore, Nicholas. The Nature-Nurture Controversy. New York: King’s Crown Press, 1949, quoted in Kohn (1990:13).

Ryan, Frank. “Darwin’s Blind Spot: Evolution beyond Natural Selection”. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2002.

Sahlins, Marshal, The Use and Abuse of Biology: An Anthropological Critique of Sociobiology, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1976.

Segerstrale, Ullica. “Defenders of the Truth - The Sociology Debate”. Oxford: University Press, 2000.

Spencer, Herbert. “Principios de Biología” [1864].

Thomas, Lewis. “The Lives of a Cell - Notes of a Biology Watcher”. New York: Bantam Books, 7th edic., 1975.

Thompson, William Irwin (ed.). Gaia, a Way of Knowing: Political Implications of the New Biology. Hudson, NY: Lindisfarne Press, 1987.

UNESCO, “Seville Statement on Violence,” written and signed by 20 renown scientists for the International Year of Peace in Seville, Spain, on May 16, 1986. URL:

UNESCO, “Declaración de Sevilla sobre la Violencia”, redactada y suscrita por 20 científicos de renombre con ocasión del Año Internacional de la Paz en Sevilla, España, el 16 de mayo del año 1986.

UNESCO, "Declaration of Principles on Tolerance", 1995.

UNESCO, "Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice", 1978.

UNESCO, "The Race Question", 1950.

Wilson, Edward O.: “Human Decency is Animal”. New York Times Magazine, 12 de octubre de 1975b, pp. 38-50.

Wilson, Edward O.: “Sociobiología: La Nueva Síntesis”. Barcelona: Editorial Omega, 1980.

Wilson, Edward O.: “Sociobiology: The Abridged Edition”. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980.

Wilber, Ken (ed.). “Quantum Questions – Mystical Writings of the World’s Great Physicists”. Boston: New Science Library, 1984.

4. Human Instincts / Instintos Humanos

Bernard, L.L. “The Misuse of Instinct in the Social Sciences”, Psychological Review, No. 28, 1921, pp. 96–118.

Bernard, L.L. Instinct: a Study in Social Psychology. New York: Holt, 1924 (excelente obra que desacredita totalmente la noción de instintos en el ser humano).

Dunlap, Knight. “Are There Any Instincts?” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, No. 14, 1919, pp. 307–311 (primero en cuestionar la existencia de instintos humanos).

Faris, Ellsworth. “Are Instincts Data or Hypotheses?” American Journal of Sociology, No. 27, 1921, pp. 184–196.

Helmuth, Hermann. Cannibalism in Paleoanthropology and Ethnology. In Ashley Montagu, ed. Man and Aggression. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968, 2nd edition 1973, pp. 229-253. Translated and revised by the author from “Kannibalismus in Paläanthropologie und Ethnologie.” [First published in the Ethnographisch-Archäologische Zeitschrift, 9, 1968, pp. 101-19, edited by Dr. phil. habil. H. Grünert, VEB Deutscher Verlad der Sissenschaften, 108 Berlin, Johannes Dieckmann-Str. 10.

Lehrman, D.S. “A Critique of Konrad Lorenz’s Theory of Instinctive Behavior”, Quarterly Review of Biology, No. 28, 1953, pp. 337–363 (rechaza la abstracción etológica del instinto en base a evidencias y teorías científicas).

McDougall, William. An Introduction to Social Psychology, 1908. 14ª edición, New York: Barnes & Noble, 1960 (contiene la definición clásica de ‘instinto’ en la página 25).

Tinbergen, N. The Study of Instinct. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1951 (incluye una definición etológica del instinto en la página 112).

Zing Yang Kuo, “Giving up Instincts in Psychology”, Journal of Philosophy, No. 18, 1921, pp. 645–664.

5. Psychological Theory / Teorías Psicológicas

Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bowlby, John (1999). Attachment and Loss: Vol I, 2da Ed. Basic Books. pp. xvi-xvii, 172-73.

Bowlby, John (2005). The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds. Routledge Classics.

Deci, Edward L., Gregory Betley, James Kahle, Linda Abrams y Joseph Porac. “When Trying to Win: Competition and Intrinsic Motivation”. Personality and Social Spychology Bulletin 7 (1981): 79-83.

Erikson, Erik. Childhood and Society. New York: Norton, 1950.

Freud, Sigmund [1920]. Beyond the Pleasure Principle. London: Hogarth Press, 1922.

Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. London: Hogarth Press, 1930.

Freud, Sigmund, Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. New York: Norton, 1966.

Hornstein, Harvey A. et al., “Effects of Knowledge about Remote Social Events on Prosocial Behavior, Social Concep­tion, and Mood”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 32 (1975): 1038-46, quoted in Kohn [2004:37].

Jordan, J., Kaplan, A., Miller, J.B., Stiver, I., & Surrey, J. (1991). Women's Growth in Connection: Writings from the Stone Center. Harvard, MA: Harvard University Press.

Jung, C.G. “Modern Man in Search of a Soul”, Chapter 5: “The Stages of Life”. New York: Harvest Books.

Kohn, Alfie. The Brighter Side of Human Nature: Altruism and Empathy in Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books, 1990.

Kohn, Alfie. You Know what they Say…: The Truth about Popular Beliefs. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.

LaKind, Elizabeth et al., “The Effect of Mood and Social Outlook on Hypothetical Juridic Decisions”, Journal of Applied Social Psychology 9 (1979): 549-59, quoted in Kohn [2004:37].

May, Rollo. The Meaning of Anxiety. Revised Ed. New York: Norton, 1977, quoted in Kohn [1992].

Miller, J. B. (1986). Toward a New Psychology of Women, (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Montagu, Ashley. The Nature of Human Aggression. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Munroe, Kristen. The Heart of Altruism: Perceptions of a Common Humanity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Piaget, J. (1977). The Essential Piaget. Ed. Howard E. Gruber and J. Jacques Vonèche. New York: Basic Books.

Raush, Harold L. “Interaction Sequences”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2 (1965): 487–99, quoted in Kohn [1992].

Robb, C. This Changes Everything: The Relational Revolution in Psychology. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2006.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1987). Thinking and Speech. En L. S. Vygotsky, R.W. Rieber (Series Eds.), & A.S. Carton (Vol. Ed.), The Collected Works of L.S. Vygotsky. Vol. 1: Problems in General Psychology (N. Minick, Trans.). New York: Plenum.

Wallach, Michael A. and Lise Wallach. Psychology’s Sanction for Selfishness: The Error of Egoism in Theory and Therapy. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman, 1983.

Yarrow, Marian Radke, and Carolyn Zahn Waxler. “The Emergence and Functions of Prosocial Behaviors in Young Children”. In Readings in Child Development and Relationships, editado por Russel C. Smart and Mollie S. Smart. 2ª ed. New York: Macmillan, 1977, quoted in Kohn [1992].

6. Sociological Theory / Teorías Sociológicas

Benedict, Ruth, The Chrisanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture. 1946. Reprinted in New York: New American Library, 1974.

Bourdieu, Pierre, et al., “El Oficio del Sociólogo – Presupuestos Epistemológicos”. Siglo XX Editores.

Gourney, Roderic. The Human Agenda. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1972.

Gould, Stephen Jay. “Biological Potential vs. Biological Determinism”. In The Sociobiology Debate, edited by  Arthur L. Caplan. New York: Harper & Row, 1978.

Hobbes, Thomas, of Malmesbury. "Leviathan or the Matter, Forme, & Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiastical and Civill". Printed for Andrew Crooke at the Green Dragon in St. Paul's Churchyard”, 1651.

Johnson, Roger T. and David W. “Cooperation in Learning: Ignored but Powerful”. Lyceum 5 (1982): 22–26.

Leakey, Richard E. “People of the Lake”. New York: Avon Books.

Leakey, Richard, and Roger Lewin. Origins: What New Discoveries Reveal About the Emergence of Our Species. London: MacDonald and Jane’s, 1977.

Malthus, Thomas, “Ensayo sobre la Población”.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. “El Contrato Social”.

Sagan, Carl: “The Dragons of Eden”. New York: Ballantine Books.

Wallach, Michael A. y Lise Wallach. Psychology’s Sanction for Selfishness: The Error of Egoism in Theory and Therapy. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman, 1983.

7. Political Theory / Teorías Políticas

Abizadeh, Arash. “Does Collective Identity Presuppose an Other? On the Alleged Incoherence of Global Solidarity.” American Political Science Review, 99 (1), 2005, pp. 45-60.

Derrida, Jacques. Politiques de l’amitié, suivi de L’oreille de Heidegger. Paris: Galilée, 1994.

Dussel, Enrique. “El Encubrimiento del Otro – Hacia el origen del mito de la modernidad”. Quito: Abya-Yala, 1994.

Eriksen, Thomas Hylland. 1995. “We and Us: Two Modes of Group Identification.” Journal of Peace Research 32 (November): 427–36.

Gitlin, Todd. ‘The Rise of Identity Politics: An Examination and a Critique’. Dissent, Vol. 40, No. 2 (1993), pp. 172-7.

Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations: Remaking of World Order. New York: Touchstone, 1996.

Karberg, Michael. “Discourse, Identity, and Global Citizenship”. Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice, vol. 20, no. 3, Autum 2008, pp. 310–320.

Lample, Paul. “Revelation & Social Reality – Learning to translate what is written into reality”. Florida: Palabra Publications, 2009.

Miller, David. “In what Sense Must Socialism be Communitarian?” Social Philosophy & Policy, No. 6 (Primavera), 1989, pp. 15-73.

Montagu, A. On being human. New York: Hawthorn, 1966.

Mouffe, Chantal. The Return of the Political. London: Verso, 1993.

Mouffe, Chantal: El Retorno de lo Político – Comunidad, Ciudadanía, Pluralismo, Democracia Radical. Barcelona: Paidós, 1999.

Mouffe, Chantal. The Democratic Paradox. London: Verso, 2000.

Muratorio, Blanca: Identidades de mujeres indígenas y política de reproducción cultural en la Amazonía Ecuatoriana. En Andrés Guerrero, Etnicidades, Quito: FLACSO, 2000, pp. 237-266.

Schmitt, Carl. The Concept of the Political. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1996.

Schnapper, Dominique. La Communauté des citoyens: Sur l’idée moderne de nation. París: Guallimard, 1994.

Smith, Anthony D. “Towards a Global Culture?”, Theory, Culture & Society, No. 7 (junio), 171-91, 1990.

Taylor, Charles. “The Politics of Recognition” en Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition, ed. Amy Gutmann, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Waltzer, Michael. “The New Tribalism: Notes on a Difficult Problem”, Dissent, No. 39 (primavera): 164-71, 1992.

Wendt, Alexander. 2003. “Why a World State Is Inevitable.” European Journal of International Relations 9 (December): 491–542.

8. Economic Theory / Teorías Económicas

Akerlof, George. ‘Loyalty Filters’. American Economic Review. Vol. 73, No. 1¬ (1983), pp. 54-63.

Axelrod, Robert. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books, 1984.

Bateson, Patrick. ‘Co-operation’. Cambridge Review, Vol. 150, No. 2 (1985).

Becker, Gary. ‘Altruism, Egoism, and Genetic Fitness: Economics and Sociobiology’. Journal of Economic Literature, No. 14 (1976), pp. 817–26.

Bergstrom, Theodore, and Oded Stark. ‘How Altruism Can Prevail in an Evolutionary Environment’. American Economic Review, Papers, and Proceedings, Vol. 83, No. 2 (1993), pp. 149–55.

Collard, David. Altruism and Economy. Oxford: Martin Robinson, 1978.

Frank, Robert. ‘If Homo Economicus Could Choose His Own Utility Function, Would He Want One with a Conscience?’ American Economic Review, Vol. 77 (1987), pp. 593–604.

Gintis Herbert, Samuel Bowles, Robert T. Boyd, Ernst Fehr (eds.), Moral Sentiments and Material Interests: The Foundations of Cooperation in Economic Life (Economic Learning and Social Evolution). MIT, 2005.

Hammond, Peter. ‘Charity, Altruism or Cooperative Egoism?’, in Phelps [1975].

Hollander, Heinz. ‘A Social Exchange Approach to Voluntary Cooperation’. American Economic Review, Vol. 80 (1990), pp. 1157-67.

Kollock, Peter. “Social Dilemmas: the Anatomy of Cooperation”. Annual Reviews of Sociolology, 1998. 24:183-214.

Lunati, Teresa. ‘On Altruism and Cooperation’. Methodus, Vol. 4, December (1992), pp. 69-75.

Margolis, Howard. Selfishness, Altruism, and Rationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Max-Neef, Manfred; Elizalde, Antonio y Hoppenhayn, Martin. “Desarrollo a Escala Humana – Conceptos, aplicaciones y algunas reflexiones”. Barcelona: Icaria Editorial, 2ª edición, 1993.

McMurtry, John. "How Competition Goes Wrong." Journal of Applied Philosophy, 8(2): 200–210, 1991.

Monroe, Kristen R. “The Heart of Altruism - Perceptions of a Common Humanity”. Princeton, 1996.

Papini, Roberto, Antoni Pavan and Stefano Zamagni (eds.). Living in the Global Society. Sydney: Ashgate, 1997.

Petrella, Riccardo, ‘Beyond the Myth of Competitiveness: Disarming the Economy for a New Social Contract’, in Papini et al. [1997:246-56].

Phelps E. (ed.). Altruism, Morality, and Economic Theory. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1975.

Rushton, Phillippe. ‘Altruism and Society: A Social Learning Perspective’. Ethics, Vol. 92, No. 3 (1982), PP. 425-46.

Simon, Herbert. ‘A Mechanism for Social Selection and Successful Altruism’. Science, Vol. 250, December (1990), pp. 1667-8.

Smith, Adam: Theory of Moral Sentiments, 1759, reprinted and edited by D.D. Raphael and  A.L. Macfie, Oxford: Clarendon, 1976.

Spencer, Herbert: The Principloes of Ethics, vol. 1, 1897, reprinted in Indianapolis by Liberty Classics, 1978.

Sugden, Robert. ‘On the Economics of Philanthropy’. Economic Journal, Vol. 92 (1982), pp. 341-50.

Zamagni, Stefano (ed.). The Economics of Altruism. Aldershot: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1995. See especially: Stefano Zamagni, ‘Introduction: The Economics of Altruism’, pp. xv-xxii.

9. Historical Theory / Teorías Históricas

Adams, David and Sarah Bosch, “The Myth that War is Intrinsic to Human Nature Discourages Action for Peace by Young People”, en Essays on Violence, Ramírez et al. (eds.), Sevilla, España: Publicaciones de la Universidad de Sevilla, 1987.

Giddens, Anthony: The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1984.

Granberg, Donald: “War Expectancy and the Evaluation of a Specific War”, Conflict Resolution 13 (1969): 546-49.

Popper, Karl R. “La Miseria del Historicismo”. Madrid: Alianza, 2002.

Toynbee, Arnold J. “Estudio de la Historia”. Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1998.

Toynbee, Arnold J. “La Civilización Puesta a Prueba”. Buenos Aires: Emecé, 1954.


C. Socio-Structural Elements / Elementos Socio-Estructurales

Effendi, Shoghi. “Call to the Nations – Extracts from the Writings of Shoghi Effendi”. Universal House of Justice, ed., 1977.

Effendi, Shoghi. “Llamado a las Naciones”. Casa Universal de Justicia, ed. Buenos Aires: Editorial Bahá'í Indo-Latinoamericana, 1977.

Kohn, Alfie: “No Contest – The Case against Competition. Why we Lose in our Race to Win”. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.

Tannen, Deborah. The Argument Culture – Moving from Debate to Dialogue. New York: Random House Inc., 1998.

1. The Economic System / El Sistema Económico

Club of Rome. The Limits to Growth. New York: University Books, 1972.

Eisler, Riane. “The Real Wealth of Nations – Creating a Caring Economics”. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2007.

Kassiola, Joel. The Death of Industrial Civilization: The Limits to Growth and the Repoliticization of Advanced Industrial Society. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.

Korten, David. “When Corporations Rule the World”. San Francisco: Berret-Koehler Publishers, 2ª ed., 2001.

Laszlo, Ervin: “The Inner Limits to Growth”.

Lyon Dahl, Arthur. The Eco Principle – Ecology & Economics in Symbiosis. London: Zed Books, 1996.

Mansbridge, Jane J, editora. “Beyond Self Interest”. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

Mihajlo Mesarovic / Eduardo Pestel. Mankind at the Turning Point – The Second Report to the Club of Rome. New York: New American Library, 1974.

Mishan, Edward J. The Costs of Economic Growth. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1993.

Perkins, John. Confessions of an Economic Hit Man. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2004.

Stuart, Alan. ‘On the Limits to Growth – an Update’. MIT, 1987.

Zohar, Dana and Marshall, Ian. “Spiritual Capital – Wealth we can live by”. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc., 2004.

2. The Political System / El Sistema Político

Avruch, Kevin, Peter Black and Joseph Scimecca (eds.). Conflict Resolution: Cross Cultural Perspectives. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991. See especially: Laura Nader, ‘Harmony Models and the Construction of Law’ , pp. 41-60.

Barry, John. Rethinking Green Politics: Nature, Virtue, and Progress. London: Sage, 1999.

Blondel, Jean. Political Parties: A Genuine Case for Discontent? London: Wildwood House, 1978.

Clift, Eleanor, and Tom Brazaitis. War without Bloodshed: The Art of Politics. New York: Touchstone, 1997.

Connolly, The terms of Political Discourse. Lexington, MA: D.C. Health, 1974.

Etzioni, Amitai. The New Golden Rule: Community and Morality in a Democratic Society. London: Profile, 1997.

Lyon, Vaughan. ‘The Future of Parties – Inevitable… Obsolete?’ Journal of Canadian Studies, Vol. 18, No. 4 (1984), pp. 108-31.

Mansbridge, Jane J. “Beyond Adversary Democracy”. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Porritt, Jonathon. Seeing Green: The Politics of Ecology Explained. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1985.

Robbins, Bruce (ed.). The Phantom: Public Sphere. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. See especially: Nancy Fraser. ‘Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy’, pp. 1-32.

Rose, Laurel L. The Politics of Harmony: Land Dispute Strategies in Swaziland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Spretnak, Charlene and Fritjof Capra. Green Politics. Santa Fe, NM: Bear and Company, 1986.

United Nationsl Institute for Namibia. Comparative Electoral Systems & Political Consequences: Options for Namibia. Edited by N.K. Duggal. Namibia Studies Series No. 14. Lusaka: United Nations, 1989.

Wolfe, Alvin and Honggang Yang (eds.). Anthropological Contributions to Conflict Resolution. Athens, Import Duty: University of Georgia Press, 1996. See especially: Schweitzer, Mary. ‘Harmony Ideology Works at the Mill’, pp. 199-30.

3. The Judicial System / El Sistema Judicial

Landsman, Stephan. The Adversary System: A Description and Defense. Washington: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1984.

Strick, Anne: Injustice for All, New York: Barricade Books, 1996.

4. El Systema de Defensa

Dower, Nigel & John Williams (eds). Global Citizenship. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Huntington, Samuel. “The Defense Establishment: Vested Interests and the Public Interest”.

Karlberg, Michael & Cheshmak Farhoumand-Sims. 2006. "Global Citizenship and Humanities Scholarship: Toward a Twenty-First Century Agenda." International Journal of the Humanities, 2 (3), 2189-2198.

Roberts, John. “World Citizenship and Mundialism – A guide to the building of a world community”. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.

Schelling, Tomas and Halperin, Morton. “Strategy and Arms Control”. New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1961.

William Hitt, “The Global Citizen”.

5. The Mass Media / Los Medios Masivos

Bettetini, Gianfranco y Fumagalli, Armando: Lo que queda de los medios; ideas para una ética de la comunicación. Tucumán: La Crujía Ediciones, 1999.

Cerbino, Mauro (ed.): Violencia en los Medios de Comunicación - generación noticiosa y percepción ciudadana. Quito: FLACSO, 2005.

Herman, Edward, and Noam Chomsky. “Manufacturing Consent”. New York:New York: Pantheon Books, 2002.

6. The Educational System / El Sistema Educativo

Anello, Eloy y Hernández, Juanita. “Capacitación de Adultos”. Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Imprenta Sirena, 1994.

Filson, Gerald. ‘Cooperative Inquiry as a Theory of Practice: Contributions of John Dewey and Jurgen Habermas’. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto, 1992.

Foss, Sonja, and Cincy Griffin. ‘Beyond Persuasion: A Proposal for an Invitational Rhetoric’. Communication Monographs, Vol. 62, March (1995), pp. 2–18.

Gearhart, Sally Miller. ‘The Womanization of Rhetoric’. Women’s Studies International Quarterly, Vol. 2 (1979), pp. 195-201.

Giraldo, Javier. “Juegos Cooperativos – Jugar para que Todos Ganen. Barcelona: Editorial Océano, 2005.

Gode, Robert. ‘Gandhi’s Theory of Nonviolent Communication’. Gandhi Marg, No. April-June (1994), pp. 5-30.

Hernández, Juanita y Anello, Eloy. “Educación Potencializadora”. Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Universidad Nur, 1996.

Johnson, Roger T. and David W. “Instructional Goal Structure: Cooperative, Competitive, or Individualistic”. Review of Educational Research 44 (1974): 213–40.

Noble, David. A World without Women: The Clerical Christian Culture of Western Science, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Moulton, Janice. ‘A Paradigm of Philosophy: The Adversary Method’, en Sandra Hardin and Merril Hintikka (eds.), Discovering Reality: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, Boston: Kluwer Boston, 1983.

Signorielli, N. and M. Morgan (eds.). Cultivation Analysis: New Directions in Research. Beverly hills, CA: Sage, 1990. See especially: Morgan, Michael, and Nancy Signorielli. ‘Cultivation Analysis: Conceptualizatio n and Methodology’, pp. 13-34.

Ong, Walter. ‘Agonistic Structures in Academia: Past to Present’, Interchange: Journal of Education, vol. 5 (1974), pp. 1-12.

Rivers, Dennis., The Seven Challenges: A Workbook and Reader About Communicating More Cooperatively, fourth edition, 2005 – treats cooperation as a set of skills that can be improved.

Wahlstrom, Riitta: “The Psychological Basis for Peace Education”, Universidad de Joensuu, Finlandia.

7. Medicine and Health / Medicina y Salud

Smith, Todd. ‘The Relativity of Social Construction: Towards a Consultative Approach to Understanding Health, Illness, and Disease’. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto, 1997.

8. Concepts of Power / Conceptos de Poder

Arbab, Farzam (2000): “Promoting a Discourse on Science, Religion and Development”, in Harper (ed): The Lab, The Temple, and the Market: Reflections at the Intersection of Science, Religion and Development, chapter 4.

Blau, Peter: Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1964.

Boulding, Kenneth E. Three Faces of Power. Newbury Park: Sage, 1990.

Chinn, Peggy. Peace and Power: A Handbook of Feminist Process. New York: National League for Nursing, 2nd ed., 1989.

Coser, Lewis and Bernard Rosenberg (eds.). Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings. New York: Macmillan, 1976. See Especially: Lewis Coser, ‘The Notion of Power: Theoretical Developments’, pp. 150-61.

Dowding, Keith. Power. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1996.

Emmet, Dorothy: “The Concept of Power”. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, London, 1953.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke. ‘Feminist Discourse and Its Discontents: Language, Power, and Meaning’. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, Vol. 7, No. 3 (1982), pp. 603-21.

Fuller, Robert W. Somebodies and Nobodies: Overcoming the Abuse of Rank. Gabriela Island, DC, Canadá: New Society Publishers, 2004.

Hartsock, Nancy. Money, Sex, and Power: Towards a Feminist Historical Materialism. New York: Longman, 1983.

Hartsock, Nancy. ‘Political Change: Two Perspectives on Power’. Quest: a Feminist Quarterly, Vol. I, No. I (1974), pp. 10-25.

Henry C. Metcalf and L. Urwick (eds.), Dynamic Administration. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1942. See especially: Follet, Mary Parker: “Power”, pp. 95-115.

Follet, Mary Parker: “Power”, in Henry C. Metcalf and L. Urwick (eds.), Dynamic Administration. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1942, pp. 95-115.

Gamson, William: Power and Discontent. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press, 1968.

Jouvenel, Bertrand De. On Power: The Natural History of Its Growth. Translated by J.F. Huntington. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1993.

Lukes, Steven. Power: A Radical View. London: Macmillian, 1974.

Lukes, Steven (ed.). Power. New York: New York University Press, 1986. See especially: Talcott Parsons, ‘Power and the Social System’, pp. 94-143.

Miller, Jean Baker: “Colloquium: Women and Power”, in Work in Progress (Stone Center for Developmental Services and Studies), vol. 82-01 (1982), pp. 1-5.

Trías, Eugenio. Tratado de la pasión. Madrid: Mondadori, 1988, citado en Arash Arjomandí, “La Concepción del Poder y la Autoridad en Prosperidad Mundial”, en Apuntes Bahá’ís, – Revista de la Asociación de Estudios Bahá’ís de España, II Época, No. 4, 2do semestre de 1995, p. 19.

Wartenberg, Thomas E. The Forms of Power: From Domination to Transformation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.


D. Psycho-Cultural Factors / Factores Psicoculturales

Arendt, Hannah: On Violence. San Diego: Harvest Books, 1969.

Bellah, R., R. Madsen, W. Sullivan, A. Swidler, and S. Tipton. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. New York: Harper Collins, 1985.

Fellman, Gordon: “Rambo and the Dalai Lama – The Compulsion to Win and its Threat to Human Survival”. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998.

Frankl, Victor E.: “Man’s Search for Meaning, an Introduction to Logotherapy” (original title: “From Death-Camp to Existentialism”, New York: Beacon Press, 1959)

Miller, Jean Baker: Toward a New Psychology of Women. Boston: Beacon Press, 2nd edition, 1976.

Ross, Marc Howard. The Culture of Conflict: Interpretations and Interests in Comparative Perspective. London: Yale University Press, 1993.

Ross, Marc Howard. Personal communication with the present author, January 25 , 2009.


E. Culture & Hegemony / Cultura y Hegemonía

Amabile, Teresa M. “Brilliant but Cruel: Perceptions of Negative Evaluators”. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 19 (1983): 146-56.

Arbab, Farzam. ‘The Process of Social Transformation’, in The Bahá'í Faith and Marxism: Proceedings of a Conference Held January 1986. Ottawa: Association for Bahá'í Studies, 1987, pp. 9–20.

Ariel, Dorfman y Mattelart, Armand. "Para Leer al Pato Donald – Comunicación de masa y colonialismo". Buenos Aires: Siglo Veintiuno Editores, 1972.

Barona, Guido. Legitimidad y Sujeción: los Paradigmas de la "Invención" de América. Bogotá: Colcultura, 1ra Edición, 1993.

Benedict, Ruth. Patterns of Culture. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1959.

Bretón y García, “Estado, etnicidad y movimientos sociales en América Latina”. Barcelona: Icaria Editorial, 2003. Véase especialmente: Fernández Rasines, Paloma: Trayectorias migratorias y la ficción de la masculinidad hegemónica, pp. 319-346.

Bronowski, J. “The Ascent of Man”. Boston, Toronto: Little, Brown & Co.

Casa Universal de Justicia, “La Promesa de Paz Mundial”, Octubre 1985. Declaración dirigida “a los pueblos del mundo” con ocasión del Año Internacional de la Paz.

Chomsky, Noam. Interview with Francine Stock of the BBC of London, at:; y

Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í: “Prosperidad Mundial”, declaración presentada ante la Cumbre Mundial de Desarrollo Social en Copenhagen en 1995.

Cumings, Bruce. The Origins of the Korean War, Vol. II, The Roaring of the Cataract, 1947-1950. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Diamond, Jared. “Guns, Germs and Steel - The Fates of Human Societies”. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1997.

Ferguson, Marilyn: “La Conspiración de Acuario”. Los Ángeles: J. P. Tarcher, 1980, p. 26)

Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Fontana, 1973.

Gramsci, Antonio. Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci. Edited and Translated by Quinton Hoare and Geoffrey N. Smith. New York: International Publishers, 5th printing, 1978.

Hall, Stuart. ‘Race, Articulation, and Societies Structured in Dominance’, in Sociological Theories: Race and Colonialism. Paris, UNESCO, 1980, pp. 305-45.

Hall, Stuart (ed.). Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. London: Sage, 1997.

Jennings, Francis, The Founders of America: How Indians discovered the land, pioneered in it, and created great classical civilizations, how they were plunged into a Dark Age by invasion and conquest, and how they are reviving. New York: Norton, 1993.

Kagan, Jerome: The Nature of the Child. New York: Basic Books, 1984, quoted in Kohn (1990:13).

Kehoe, A.B. Conflict is a Western Worldview. En Rohrl V.J., Nicholson M.E.R., Zamora MD, eds. "The Anthropology of Peace: Essays in Honor of E. Adamson Hoebel". Williamsburg, VA: Studies in Third World Societies Publication, No. 47, 1992, pp. 55-65.

Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.

Lipschutz, Alejandro: El problema racial en la conquista de América y el mestizaje. Santiago de Chile: Austral, 1962.

Lopera, Jaime. El Lado Humano del Conflicto. Bogota: Intermedio Editores, 2006.

Lull, James. “ HELP! Cultura e Identidad en el siglo XXI”. En Diá-logos de la Comunicación, No 48, Lima, Felafacs, 1997.

Lunch, Nick & Chris. “Insights into Participatory Video – A Handbook for the Field”. Inglaterra/Francia: Insight, 2006.

Morley, David, and Kuan-Hsing Chen (eds.). Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. London: Routledge, 1996.

O’Connor, “Pop Culture as Insults and Threatened Violence”, New York Times, 14 marzo 1989, C22, quoted in Kohn (2004:37).

O’Gorman, Edmundo. La Invención de América – el Universalismo de la Cultura de Occidente. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1958.

Perceval, José María. “Nacionalismos, Xenofobia y Racismo en la Comunicación – una Perspectiva Histórica”. Barcelona: Ediciones Paidós, 1995.

Prieto Castillo, Daniel, “Análisis de Mensajes”. Quito: Ediciones CIESPAL, 1988.

Rivera, Miguel (ed.), “Chilam Balam de Chumayel”, Historia 16, Madrid, 1986.

Russell, Bertrand. “Proposed Roads to Freedom – Socialism, Anarchism and Syndicalism”. Cornwall NY: Cornwall Press, Inc., 1918.

Todorov, Tzvetan: La Conquista de América. Madrid: Siglo XXI de España, 1982.

Toynbee, Arnold. Change and Habit – the Challenge of our Time. New York: Oneworld Publications, 1992.

Touraine, Alain: “El Regreso del Actor”. Buenos Aires: EUDEBA, 1994, pp. 127-138.

UNESCO, “Towards a Global Culture of Peace,”, working paper prepared by the Culture of Peace Program (CPP) for the Second International Forum on the Culture of Peace, Manila, Philippines, November 1995.

UNESCO, “Hacia una Cultura Global de Paz”, documento de trabajo preparado por el Programa Cultura de Paz (CPP) para el Segundo Foro Internacional sobre la Cultura de Paz, Manila, Filipinas, noviembre de 1995.

Vivian Rohrl, M. Nicholson & Mario Zamora (eds.). The Anthropology of Peace. Williamsburg, VA: Studies in Third World Societies, 1992. See especially: Kehoe, Alice. ‘Conflict is a Western Worldview’, pp. 55-66.


F. Alternative Benchmarks / Referentes Alternativos

Boulding, Elise: “Cultures of Peace - The Hidden Side of History”. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2000.

Carrithers, Michael. ‘Sociality, Not Aggression, is the Key Human Trait’, in Howell [1989:187–209].

Howell, Signe, and Roy Willis. Societies at Peace: Anthropological Perspectives. London: Routledge, 1989. (An edited collection of scholarly essays by anthropologists about the peaceful societies they have studied. Clayton Robarchek on the Semai, Signe Howell on the Chewong, Thomas Gibson on the Buid, Joanna Overing on the Piaroa, Carl O’Nell on the Zapotec of La Paz , and Roy Willis on the Fipa are some of the effective pieces in this work. A worthwhile read for anyone interested in the variations among societies at peace.)

IUPsyS (Committee for the Psychological Study of Peace): “Cultures of Peace: Social-Psychological Foundations”, based on an introductory paper commissioned by UNESCO. Quoted in Khan, 2005.

Lerche, Charles O, editor. “Healing the Body Politic”. Oxford: George Ronald, 2004.

1. Pre-industrial Peoples / Pueblos Preindustriales

Briggs, Jean. Never in Anger: Portrait of an Eskimo Family. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1971. (An engaging ethnography of an Inuit community in northern Canada, filled with interesting details about the lives of the people. Briggs describes, with warmth and sensitivity, their social life, their style of child rearing, and their attempts to include her in their community. The author brings herself into the story in order to develop a sophisticated ethnography wrapped inside a page-turning travel account about people who cannot tolerate displays of anger.)

Dentan, Robert Knox. The Semai: A Nonviolent People of Malaya. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968. (Written for undergraduate anthropology students, this slender, gracefully written volume explores the practices and beliefs of a society that cherishes its peacefulness. The work includes a lot of vital information about the Semai such as their responses to their natural environment, their agricultural practices, their thoughts about health, disease, death, and more. An inspiring, pioneering work of ethnographic scholarship focusing on the peacefulness of a society, this book makes compelling reading.)

Fernea, Robert A. Nubians in Egypt: Peaceful People. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1973. (A large-format volume with many stunning photos by Georg Gerster, this work emphasizes the practical reasons the Nubians were peaceful. Fernea does not claim that they were always nonviolent, but he shows how important the effective sharing of economic resources can be in fostering a stable, peaceful social system. Conflict resolution techniques that head off violence and the strong sense these people have of their own peacefulness also highlight this important and readable work.)

Gaitan Gómez, Ivan Mauricio (2004). “Pueblos originarios y resolución de conflictos”, en: Oswald, Resolución no violenta de conflictos en sociedades indígenas y minorías, Coltlax, IPRAF, CLAIP, Böll, México, D.F., pp. 71-94.

Kemp, Graham & Douglas P. Fry, eds. Keeping the Peace: Conflict Resolution and Peaceful Societies around the World. New York: Routledge, 2004. (Chapters on the Paliyans, the Nubians, the Semai, and the Zapotec of La Paz, plus numerous others, highlight this edited collection of essays by anthropologists about the styles of conflict resolution in various peaceful societies. Very effective introductory and concluding material by the two editors, as well as suggested study questions after each chapter, distinguish this work and make it appropriate for use in undergraduate peace studies courses.)

Mead, Margaret. Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.

Mead, Margaret. Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies. New York: Mentor, 1950.

Munch, Peter A. Crisis in Utopia: The Ordeal of Tristan da Cunha. New York: Crowell, 1971. (A popularly-written history of Tristan da Cunha. It focuses on the emergency evacuation of the islanders in 1961 due to a volcano eruption, and their struggle to return to their remote, lonely island in the South Atlantic despite opposition from the British government. Munch, a sociologist, followed up on the story with a 1964 visit to the island so he could describe the ways these atomistic, anarchistic, highly peaceful people have coped with these stresses.)

Norberg-Hodge, Helena. Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1991. (Reflects the author’s many years of living in Ladakh, northern India , and it radiates the warmth she feels toward the Ladakhi people. She sympathetically describes the peaceful beliefs of their Tibetan Buddhism, and she lets their joie de vivre lighten the arid landscape. But Norberg-Hodge also allows the dark sides of the picture to emerge, particularly the deleterious effects of rapid development on a traditional society. An eloquently-written, effective book that should captivate most readers.)

Oswald, Resolución noviolenta de conflictos en sociedades indígenas y minorías, Coltlax, IPRAF, CLAIP, Böll, México DF, (2004). Véase especialmente: Gaitan Gómez, Ivan Mauricio, “Pueblos originarios y resolución de conflictos”, pp. 71-94.

Sponsel, Leslie E. & Thomas Gregor, eds. The Anthropology of Peace and Nonviolence. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1994. (A work comparable to Howell and Willis, and Kemp and Fry, this volume contains a rich mixture of essays on the Semai, the Zapotec of La Paz, and others. Jean Briggs’ essay, “‘Why Don’t You Kill Your Baby Brother?’ The Dynamics of Peace in Canadian Inuit Camps,” is particularly haunting and provocative. These essays should help convince skeptics that the study of anthropology, particularly of peaceful societies, can provide a vital contribution to peace studies, and vice versa.)

Thomas, Elizabeth Marshall. The Harmless People. New York: Knopf, 1959. (Thomas writes beautifully about the Ju/’hoansi, then known as the !Kung, a hunting and gathering society in the deserts of southern Africa. She accompanied her parents, Laurence and Lorna Marshall, and her brother John, in a series of family expeditions in the 1950s to study a society that, until then, was little known to the outside world. This international best seller describes the everyday details of camp life, including instances of quarreling and of harmless, cooperative, harmonious camp life.)

Turnbull, Colin. The Forest People. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1961. (A popularly-written work about life in an Mbuti band in the forest of the Congo. In the tradition of the best travel writing, the author, an anthropologist, keeps himself in the background as he describes the way the people hunt, dance, marry, play, fight, and celebrate their rituals. The Mbuti are consistently fascinating—as is the book that describes them so well.)

2. Industrialized Nations / Naciones Industrializadas

Eckstein, Harry. Division and Cohesion in Democracy: A Study of Norway. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966.

Huddleston, John. “The Search for a Just Society”. Oxford: George Ronald, 1989.

3. Intentional Communities / Comunidades Intencionales

Arnold, Eberhard (1925). Vivir en Comunidad – ¿Por qué?. Farmington, PA: Plough Publishing House, 2005.

Baum, Patricia. La Comuna, una Alternativa a la Familia. Madrid: Ediciones Guadarrama, 1975.

Kraybill, Donald B. The Riddle of Amish Culture. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. (Kraybill uses common perceptions and misperceptions about the Amish people to serve as a springboard for his careful, scholarly, well-written explanation of who the Amish are and why they do what they do. Enriched with wonderful photos, this book stands out from others on this society for its lucid explanations and effective style. The reader completes the work with a feeling of admiration for the Amish—and for the ability of the author to explain their society so well.)

4. Alternative Institutions / Instituciones Alternativas

Anello, Eloy y Hernández, Juanita. “Liderazgo Moral”. Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Imprenta Sirena, Segunda Edición, 1996.

Anello, Eloy y Hernández, Juanita. “Participación Comunitaria”. Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Universidad Núr, 1993.

Bush, Robert. A. Baruch, and Joseph P. Folger. The Promise of Mediation: Responding to Conflict through Empowerment and Recognition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1994.

Bushrui, Suheil. “Derechos Humanos - Fundamentos Espirituales”. Barcelona: Arca Editorial, 2004.

Fisher, Roger, William Ury y Bruce Patton. “Obtenga el Sí – El Arte de Negociar sin Ceder”. Barcelona: Ediciones Gestión 2000, 2da Edición, 1997.

Hernández, Juanita y Anello, Eloy. “El Trabajo en Equipo”. Imprenta Sirena, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 1995.

Hernández, Juanita. “Multiculturalidad y la Resolución de Conflictos”. Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Universidad Nur, 1997.

Miall, Hugh: Peacemakers: Peaceful Settlement of Disputes since 1945. London: Macmillan, Oxford Research Group, 1992.

Shiva, Vandana. “Earth Democracy: Justice, Sustainability and Peace”. Cambridge: South End Press, 2005.

Ury, William. “¡Supere el No! – Cómo Negociar con personas que adoptan posiciones obstinadas”. Bogotá: Grupo Editorial Norma, 1993.

5. Parallel Subcultures / Subculturas Paralelas

Abdu'l-Bahá, citado en: Departamento de Investigación de la Casa Universal de Justicia, La Mujer, una recopilación. Barcelona: Editorial Bahá'í de España, 1987.

Benedict, Ruth. Patterns of Culture. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1959.

Brock-Utne, Birgit. Feminist Perspectives on Peace and Peace Education. New York: Pergamon Press, 1989.

Brown, Emma. “Elise Boulding, matriarch of peace studies movement, dies at 89”, The Washington Post, 6 de julio de 2010. URL:

De la Cadena, Marisol: Las Mujeres son más Indias. En Ruiz-Bravo, Patricia, (Ed.), Detrás de la Puerta – Hombres y Mujeres en el Perú de Hoy. Lima: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 1996, pp. 181-202.

Ducat, Stephen. The Wimp Factor: Gender Gaps, Holy Wars, and the Politics of Anxious Masculinity. Boston: Beacon Press, 2004.

Eisler, Riane. The Chalice and the Blade: Our History, Our Future. San Francisco: Harper, 1987.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke. Women and War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2nd Ed., 1995.

Hartsock, Nancy: Money, Sex, and Power: Towards a Feminist Historical Materialism. New York: Longman, 1983.

Harvey, Penny: Los “hechos naturales” de parentesco y género en un contexto andino. En Denise Arnold. Gente de carne y hueso: Las tramas de parentesco en los Andes, 1998, pp. 69-82.

Hofstede, Geert. Culture's consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2ª edición, 2000.

Kramarae, Cheris and Paula Treichler: Amazons, Bluestockings and Crones: Feminist Dictionary. Muriel Schulz and William M. O’Barr (eds.). London: Pandora, 1992.

O’Brien and Tiffany (eds.), Rethinking Women’s Roles: Perspectives from the Pacific. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. See especially: Marilyn Strathern, Domesticity and the Denigration of Women.

Poeschel–Renz, Úrsula: Las Marcas de la Violencia en la Construcción Sociohistórica de la Identidad Femenina Indígena. En Rivera Vélez, Freddy (Ed.), Ecuador Debate 59. Quito: Centro Andina de Acción Popular (CAAP), 2003, pp. 103-122.

Reardon, Betty. Sexism and the War System. New York: Syracuse University Press, 1996.

Reardon, Betty. Women and Peace: Feminist Visions of Global Security. New York: State University of New York Press, 1993.

Robalino, Magaly; Villarruel, Marco; Isch, Edgar. Mujeres Invisibles: un estudio del sexismo en la docencia y en los textos escolares ecuatorianos. Quito: DINAMU – UNICEF, 1992.

Russel, Diana (ed.). Exposing Nuclear Phallacies. New York: Pergamon Press, 1989. See especially: Charlene Spretnak, ‘Naming the Cultural Forces that Push Us toward War’, pp. 53-62; and Penny Strange, ‘It’ll make a Man of You: A Feminist View of the Arms Race’, pp. 104-26.

Tannen, Deborah. Gender and Discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Warren, Karen J. ‘The Power and Promise of Ecological Feminism’. Environmental Ethics, Vol. 12, No. 3 (1990), pp. 125-46.

Warren, Karen J. Ecological Feminist Philosophies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996. See especially: Karen Warren and Jim Cheney. ‘Ecological Feminism and Ecosystem Ecology’, pp. 244-62.

Weismantel, Mary: Alimentación, género y pobreza en los Andes Ecuatorianos. Práctica: Vida en la cocina. En Herrera, Gioconda: Estudios de Género. Quito: Flacso, 2001, pp. 81-114.


G. Recovering Utopia / Rescate de la Utopía

Afnan, Elham. “The Good of the World and the Happiness of the Nations – A Study of Modern Utopian and Dystopian Literature”. Canadá: Asociación de Estudios Bahá’ís, The Journal of Bahá’í Studies, Vol. I, No. 4, 1989.

Elliot, Robert C. “The Shape of Utopia”. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Levi–Strauss, Claude: Antropología Estructural: Mito, Sociedad, Humanidades, 1958. (Método de pares opuestos).

Nash, Geoffrey. “The Pheonix and the Ashes: The Bahá'í Faith and the Modern Apocalypse”. Oxford: George Ronald, 1984.

Nisbet, Robert. “History of the Idea of Progress”. New York: Basic Books, 1980.

Rabbani, Shoghi Effendi. The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh. Wilmette. Illinois: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. 1991.

Ruppert, Peter. “Reader in a Strange Land: The Activity of Reading Literary Utopias”. Athens: University of Georgia Publishers, 1986.

Senge, Peter, et al. “La Quinta Disciplina en la Práctica: Estrategias y herramientas para construir la organización abierta al aprendizaje”. Barcelona: Ediciones Juan Granica, 1997.

Senge, Peter. “La Quinta Disciplina: El arte y la práctica de la organización abierta al aprendizaje”. Barcelona: Ediciones Juan Granica, 1997.

Wallerstein, I. “Utopística o las Opciones Históricas del Siglo XXI”. México: Siglo XXI / UNAM, 2003.


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